Accounts of the Martyrs of the Chinese Orthodox Church who fell victim in Beijing in 1900.

Icon of chinese orthodox Martyrs. Murdered during Boxer Rebellion (1900). Canonized before 1917.

The Boxer Rebellion is one of the little known historical pages of Russian Spiritual Mission in China. The year 1900 is known as the time of the most active activity of the Yihetuan – mostly a religious movement called the Boxer Rebellion following the incorrect British translation. Directed against foreigners, its ideology lay in anti-Christianity. When the uprising enveloped the entire capital, Director of the Russian Spiritual Mission, Archimandrite Innocent (Figurovskii, future Metropolitan of Beijing and China) left Beiguan with his collaborators and moved to the Russian embassy. Along with the church accessories they brought with them an ancient icon of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk, brought from Albazin by Fr. Maxim Leontiev back in 1685. Chinese government allotted 10 pikemen to guard the Mission, but on June 11 it was burned to the ground, destroying its library, archive and sacristy. Yihetuans have tortured to death 222 Orthodox Chinese, which are considered the first Chinese martyrs. Among them – hieromartyr Metrophanes, first Chinese priest consecrated in Japan by its enlightener, St. Nicholas. By the intercessions of the Mission’s Director, the Holy Synod has appointed a liturgical celebration to the holy Chinese New-Martyrs (Decree №2874 from April 22, 1902). Their holy relics, many of which turned out to be incorrupt, were buried in the crypt of the new church dedicated to All Martyrs. The “Praise” following their lives is written by Archimandrite Avraamii (Chasovnikov), who, together with Archimandrite Innocent, was a witness of the horrors of the Boxer Rebellion. The “Praise to the slain” was first published in “Izvestiia Bratstva Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi v Kitae”, №8 (July 1, 1905). – Ed.

Part I

Priest MITROPHAN. Priest Mitrophan, his Chinese name being Chang Yangji, was born in 1855, on the 10th day of the 12th month. Before reaching twenty years of age, he was appointed to the post of catechist. At 25 he was ordained to the priesthood by Nikolai, bishop of Japan. He lost his father in early childhood and was raised under the care of his grandmother Ekaterina and his mother Marina; his mother was a teacher at a school for females. At the time he experienced many troubles. When Archimandrite Pallady became head of the Mission for the second time, he charged his teacher Jǔrén, Lóng Yuán (举人隆源) to take great care in educating Mitrophan, in order to prepare him for eventual ordination. Mitrophan was a humble person, very cautious and quiet, peaceful and not impassioned; even when faced with great insults, he did not try to justify himself. Archimandrite Pallady's successor was Archimandrite Flavian, who later became Metropolitan of Kiev. From the time of his arrival in Běijīng (北京, Peking), Archimandrite Pallady charged him, as well as the teacher Long Yuan, to try to have Mitrophan attain what had been predestined (that is the priestly rank). Mitrophan did not want to accept ordination and constantly refused, saying "how can a person with insufficient abilities and charity dare to accept this great rank?" But under the forceful urging of Archimandrite Flavian and the persuasion of the teacher, Mitrophan obeyed, even though he knew that by accepting priesthood, his end would be inauspicious. Under Archimandrite Flavian, Priest Mitrophan assisted him in translating and checking books. For fifteen years, he tirelessly served God, while suffering many hurts and insults both from his own people and outsiders, he finally had a mild breakdown. Sometime after this spent three years living outside the mission, receiving half of his previous salary. All his life the Priest Mitrophan was not avaricious and many took advantage of this.

In 1900, on the evening of June 1 (which was the 17th day of the 5th month on the Chinese calendar), the Boxers burned the Mission's buildings. Many Christians, hiding from danger, assembled in Priest Mitrophan's home. Although Fr. Mitrophan's former ill-wishers were among them, he did not drive them out. Seeing that some people were dispirited, he strengthened them, saying that the time of troubles had come and would be difficult to avoid. He himself several times daily went to look at the burned church. On the 10th of June, towards 10 in the evening, soldiers and Boxers surrounded Fr. Mitrophan's dwelling. Up to 70 Christians were there at the time; the stronger among them fled, while Fr. Mitrophan and many others, primarily women and children, remained and were tortured. Fr. Mitrophan sat in his courtyard when the Boxers punctured his chest like a honeycomb and he fell under a date tree. His neighbors removed his body to the Mission's almshouse. Later the Priest-monk Avraamy picked up Fr. Mitrophan's body and, in 1903, during the first commemoration of the martyrs, it along with others, was placed under the altar in the martyrs' church. At the place were Fr. Mitrophan was tortured, now a cross is erected and every memorial day of the martyrs a sacred procession takes place to commemorate them. The family of Fr. Mitrophan also included his wife Tatiana from theLǐ (李) family, and three sons – the older, Isaiah; the second Sergiy – now an archpriest; and the third Ioann.

TATIANA, 44 years of age. On June 10th Tatiana was saved from the Boxers with help from her son Isaiah's bride, but on the following day, June 11th, she was seized in the morning and together with 19 others, was sent outside the Āndìngmén Gate (安定门) to Xiaoyingfang, to the Boxer camp and was then executed by beheading, at the place where there is now the "Treugol'nik" [Triangle], an almshouse for the poor.

ISAIAH, served in the artillery for 23 years. On June 7th, the Boxers executed him by beheading on the big street near the Píngzémén Gate (平则门) , because it had been known that he was a Christian.

IOANN (John). He was 7 years old at the time. On the evening of June 10th, when Fr. Mitrophan was killed, the Boxers split Ioann's shoulders and severed his toes. His brother Isaiah's bride managed to save him from death by hiding him in a latrine. In the morning he sat at the entrance without clothes and shoes, and when people asked "are you hurting?", he answered "it doesn't hurt." Boys scoffed at him, calling him "èrmáozǐ" (二毛子), but he answered, "I believe in God, and am not 'èrmáozǐ'." He got used to answering thus, becuse the pagans constantly called Christians devil's disciples, (the word "èrmáozǐ" has this meaning). Ioann asked neighbors for water, but they not only did not give it to him, but chased him away. Protasy Chang and Irodion Xu, who were not yet baptized, testify that they saw this boy with wounded shoulders and feet; the wounds were 1¾ inches deep, but he felt no pain and, when seized again by the Boxers, he felt no fear and went peacefully. One old man expressed a regret about him, saying "What is this boy guilty of? It is his parents' fault that he became a devil's disciple. Others made fun of him, derided him, or simply smiled with contempt. So he was taken as a lamb to slaughter.

MARIA, 19 yrs. old, bride of Fr. Mitrophan's son Isaiah. Two days before the Boxer's pogrom, she came to Fr. Mitrophan's home, wishing to die in her groom's family. When the Boxer's surrounded Fr. Mitrophan's house on June 10th, she very courageously helped to rescue others, supporting them in climbing over the wall. When the Boxers and soldiers broke down the doors and entered the courtyard, Maria bravely accused them of beating people lawlessly and indiscriminately, and they didn't dare to kill her, but simply wounded her hand and pierced her leg. In general, she exhibited uncommon courage and sense. Fr. Mitrophan's son Sergiy, three times tried to convince her to leave and hide, but she answered: "I was born near the church of the Most Holy Mother of God and here I will die" and she remained where the church was. Soon soldiers and Boxers arrived there, and the courageous woman was martyred, considering death as departure to a place of blessed rest.

Give rest, O Lord, to the souls of your servants – Priest Mitrophan and those with him – and make their memory to be eternal. Amen.

Part II

PAVEL (Paul) Wang Wenheng, aged 36. Before reaching 20 years of age, he was appointed to the post of catechist, since he was honest, obedient, submissive and a gifted communicator. He was particularly like-minded with Fr. Mitrophan. His words prepared many for the coming disasters, but some were skeptical about his words, and said he will be the first to apostatize. On June 2, his property was plundered and his house destroyed. Having taken what silver could be rescued, Pavel sought safety with pagan relatives. But they acted guilefully towards him: at first they took him in, then, taking possession of his silver, they chased him away. Pavel was a hard-working, thrifty and kind, but during the days of disaster, he had no food. This is how people repaid a righteous person. Pavel was martyred on the evening of June 10. Suffering the same fate together with him: his mother Ekaterina, 62; wife Sarrah, 37; son Ioann, 11; daughter Alexandra, 9. About Pavel, it is said that before dying he prayed to God on bended knees and hands crossed on his chest. About his mother it is said that before her martyrdom she, having poor eyesight, wandered around the city hiding from the Boxers; she was mistaken to be a well-poisoner, undressed and pushed into a bog.

JOACHIM, 19 yrs old, nephew of Pavel, was seized by the Boxers on June 4th and killed near the northeast tower of the city wall. He was the first among Orthodox Christians to die as a martyr.

INNOKENTY (Innocent) Fang Zhihai. Born in 1852, 24th day of the 5th month (咸丰岁次壬子年丙午月甲戌日); baptized in infancy. He had good singing ability and for a long time was the Mission school teacher. He was an honest and sincere person. Archimandrite Innokenty (later a bishop) greatly appreciated him, appointed him "econom" [housekeeping manager], and was preparing him for ordination to the diaconate. Innokenty's wife Elena (from the Shi family), 49 yrs. of age, their children: the elder son, Evmeny, 17 yrs.; the second son Ivan (who had gone through the Boxer Rebellion); the elder daughter Sophia, 9 yrs.; younger daughter Nadezhda (Hope), 9 years. On June 1, when the Boxers burned the church, Innokenty's house was also plundered and burned. The next day, Innokenty hid in Priest Mitrophan's house, and his wife with two daughters hid with relatives, but on the evening of June 2 these betrayed them to the Boxers. The Boxers returned the girls, but Elena was taken to an idolatrous temple where attempts were made to have her bow before idols, but she strenuously resisted. After this, in the street leading to the Āndìngmén Gate, she was made to kneel and twice struck on the neck by a dagger. Elena lost consciousness and the Boxers, considering her dead, ordered the guard to put her aside. By morning Elena regained consciousness. Noticing this, the guard released her from the matting in which she was wrapped, brushed soil off of her and released her. Christians, hearing what happened to Elena, led her to the house of Priest Mitrophan. Seeing Elena stained with blood and hearing her story, how she suffered for Christ, all began to cry and expressed the hope that the Lord would preserve her life. But as she began to recover from wounds, on June 10 she was to die a martyr's death with the others. Such was the will of God. That day, June 10, Innokenty, fleeing the Boxers through the courtyard wall, injured his face. On the morning of the next day, he sat at the Mission site well, holding his daughter Nadezhda on his lap. This girl was rescued from a fire, her hair was singed, her white shirt was dirtied with blood – probably she was wounded by the Boxers. Fr. Mitrophan's son Sergy twice tried to convince Innokenty to hide. But he replied: "I and my daughter are wounded; it is difficult for us to hide; it is better to die near the church." Soon Boxers arrived. Innokenty, it is said, jumped into the well – which had little water – and the Boxers stoned him. When this well was dug up in 1903, four whole corpses were found there. They were buried under the altar of the Church of the Martyrs.

On the morning of the 10th, before the attack on the Christian's in Fr. Mitrophan's house, Innokenty's elder son Evmeny, together with his brother Ivan, was taken by one of the officers from the army protecting Beijing from the Boxers' violence to Nányuàn (南苑, southern military post near Beijing). It is unknown where Evmeny died. Innokenty's daughter Sophia, probably burned in Fr. Mitrophan's house together with more than 10 other girls.

Part III

An Albazinian, KLIMENT (Clement), Kui Ling, 36 years – sacristan. His wife (from the Zhun family) Barbara, 35 yrs. Their children: Maria, 14 yrs.; Olga 11 yrs., Ia, 9 yrs. and Irina, 4 yrs. The day that the Mission buildings were burned, Kliment with his family hid in his cemetery outside the city. Later they were executed at the Triangle together with others on June 11th. Kliment was a sacristan since his youth and served very assiduously. Kliment's mother, Ia, 56 yrs. old, a widow from a young age, was the principal teacher at the school for females at the Mission, and was in charge of handicrafts for church decoration. She died a martyr's death in Fr. Mitrophan's home on June 10th. The Boxers chopped off her leg before her death.

MATFEI (Matthew) Hai Qun, 31 years old, assistant to the sacristan, his wife (from the Rui family) Matrona, 32 years old. On June 11th, that is, the day after the killing of Christians in Fr. Mitrophan's house, at about 7 o'clock in the morning, Matfei and Matrona with their five year old child Agafia, fled near the city's north wall, towards the Mission site, pursued by a soldier with a dagger in his hand. At that time, the Mission site was filled with Boxers. Matfei and Matrona were seized and executed at the Triangle.

VITT Hai, Matfei's brother, 29 years old, on June 11th was killed in the Cheng'ensi pagan temple during the day and burned. Vitt read well in Slavonic. Before the beginning of the Boxer Rebellion, he had been inBěidàhé (北大河, Peitaho) with the Mission chief and returned to Beijing already after the destruction of the railway. Regarding Vitt's wife Marfa, whom he had recently married, no information was preserved. Matfej's second brother, Nikifor Hai (27 years), sisters Vassa Zhong, (25 years) and ElenaZhong (19 years), third brother Kirill Hai (15 years), their Mother EkaterinaZhun, a widow (55 years), and grandmother Nadezhda Chang, widow (81), died as martyrs on June 11. Nadezhda was killed in the house, but the rest, together with Vitt, while being led into the Cheng'ensi pagan temple, were killed on cathedral grounds which now belong to the Mission. Their uncle Alexei Ming (51 yrs) was killed on June 11th in the Cheng'ensi pagan temple; their cousin Vonifati (25 yrs.), son Taisii, killed beyond the Dōngzhímén Gate (东直门) in Huājiādì (花家地) ; his younger brother Stefan (19 yrs.) was taken by the Boxers into slavery and was at their camp, then was killed.

An Albazinian, SIMEON Xi Lin'a (50 yrs.), formerly a sacristan and bellringer, had lately been baking prosfora (church bread). On June 10 he was among those surrounded by the Boxers, died, probably in the Cheng'ensi pagan temple.

Albazinian maidens, EKATERINA (24 yrs.) and MUZA (Muse 17 yrs.), daughters of Alexander Ai, died as martyrs in the house of Vitt Hai, which was on a site which now has a women's monastery. It is said that they tried to flee from the burning house over a wall, but the Boxers pierced them with spears and threw them down into the courtyard of the burning house.

MARINA Xu, 44 yrs., widowed for many years, was a teacher at the Mission's school for females. On June 2, that is, the day after the Mission buildings were burned, Marina, together with her brother Kassian Lin's wife, Liudmila, and her children: Vladimir, Nikita and Georgy, went to Alexander Cheng. She said that she fled only for the sake of the children, and had she been alone, she would have sacrificed herself to God when the church burned. Alexander's wife's brother was afraid to let Marina and Liudmila with the children into the house. Khrisanf In who was there also said it was dangerous for Christians to gather in one place. Therefore, Marina and Liudmila, after washing up and drinking tea, returned to Shizijie (near the Mission) and lived there until June 10. When on the evening of June 10th the Boxers began attacking the Christians, Marina and Liudmila hid within the house concealed by darkness. Passing near that house, the Boxers opened a rear window, looked and threw a torch inside the house but did not notice Maria and Liudmila with her children. At the time, they were kneeling and praying. On June 11 Marina separated from Liudmila and went to her husband's relatives in the southeast part of the city, but there she was seized by the Boxers and killed. And Liudmila, with her children, wandered about the city as a beggar, and finally was able to get out of the city and was saved. Liudmila's son, Vladimir now serves in the rank of deacon.

An Albazinian, ANNA Rui, 57 yrs., a widow. Her two married daughters are among those who died as martyrs; a third daughter, presently the nun Fiva, and son, now the priest Mikhail Min, had been in the hands of the Boxers, but were saved. Anna herself died on the evening of June 10. When the Boxers broke into the house, Anna strongly reproached them. Grown furious, the Boxers chopped her with swords and later burned her body completely.

Part IV

PYOTR (Peter) Li Yongan, 27 yrs.; chorister; conducted meteorological observations. On the next day after the destruction of the Mission buildings, i.e., June 2, Peter's house was also plundered. His was a large family living together, primarily women and children. Having lost the shelter, they hid in Fr. Mitrophan's house and in other places. Peter was killed by the Boxers on June 10th in the house of Michael Wen. His corpse was seen pressed down by a thrown beam. Peter's wife Evfimia, 22 yrs., and daughter Artemia (4 yrs), died as martyrs beyond the Dōngzhímén Gate (东直门), near the northern brick factories. And his son Filimon, a 1 year old infant, was thrown by the Boxers there on the road and, probably, picked up by one of the local residents. Maria, 37 yrs old., the wife of Peter's elder brother Matfei Li, with several children, among whom was Fr. Mitrophan's son, Ioann, hid in her mother's home beyond the Dōngzhímén Gate (东直门) in the villageDōngbàhé (东坝河) . But the local residents drove them out. This was on June 2, in the evening. June 3 after midday, beyond the Āndìngmén Gate (安定门), the Boxers seized them and wanted to place them in a cauldron with hot water. But at the time, the government's protection of the Boxers had not yet been announced, and they did not dare kill Christians; moreover, many good people expressed compassion towards the children; therefore the Boxers released Maria with the children. On June 10 she was among those who were surrounded by the Boxers near the Mission site. In the morning of the 11th, Fr. Mitrophan's son Sergy saw her on the Mission site near the well under a tree and tried to convince her to hide. But she showed no fear and calmly spoke to Innokenty Fang. It was here that she accepted a martyr's death. Her body was later found in the well with Innokenty's body – it is not known whether she was killed with stones in the well, or thrown there after being killed. Maria's two daughters – Anisia (14 yrs) and Melania (3 yrs.) probably burned in Father Mitrophan's house.

An Albazinian, ALEXANDRA Li, 32 yrs, widow, sister of the catechist, Paul; her deceased husband Evmeny, brother of Peter Li, had assisted Archimandrite Flavian with translations. Alexandra had esteemed her husband as Sarah had Abraham. On the evening of June 10, she was among those surrounded by the Boxers in Fr. Mitrophan's house and did not want to seek safety in flight. When the Boxers broke down a door, she was probably one of the first to be killed. The Boxers burned her with torches, so that her whole body broke apart. Her body lay to the right side of Fr. Mitrophan's body. Alexandra's two daughters – Artemia, 15 yrs. and Evdokia, 12 yrs. – probably were also burned to death in Fr. Mitrophan's house.

Part V

An Albazinian, ALEXEY Ying, 27 yrs – a chorister from early childhood. On the day of the killing of Christians, June 10, Alexey avoided death, but then several days later returned to his acquaintance, Zhun, in order to borrow money; – he had borrowed money from this person even earlier. At this time one of the neighbors – who was called Niren Huang – seized him and throwing a cord around his neck, lead him to the Boxer's camp – to the pagan temple Cheng'ensi, where Alexey endured a martyr's death. His mother, Susanna A, a 59 yr. old widow, was martyred on June 11 at the Triangle. It is not known where Alexey's older brother, David, 37 yrs. died. His other older brother, Evfilii, 35 yrs. old, lame, on June 11 was walking by the southwest corner of Siyefu (the present site of the Mission); there a certain Yu Sang began to berate him for being a Christian. Evfimy answered with sharp words. Then, having run into his house, Yu Sang, jumped out with a dagger and struck Evfimy many times. Evfimy fell to the ground, but soon regained consciousness and headed for his own house. Yu Sang, learning that Evfimy had not died, went after him with many others and at first pelted him with stones, and later killed him at a place named Wuyueguan. This Boxer, Yu Sang, remained alive after the war, but he incurred a heavy punishment: he lost the lower part of his body so that he could not move at all.

Part VI

AFANASY (Athanasius) Yu, 21 yrs., studied in the Mission school since an early age and was a chorister. In May when the public disturbances began, he went to Dōngdìngān (东定安) together with Archimandrite Innokenty (now Bishop). Having calmed the Christians, Archimandrite Innokenty returned to Beijing, but Afanasy remained in Dōngdìngān with Fr. Mitrophan's son Sergy who lived there at the church. But on the evening of May 25 the Dōngdìngānchurch was burned by the Boxers, and Afanasy with Sergy fled to Beijing. Then on June 10, Afanasy endured a martyr's death in his father's house (near the southwest corner of the women's monastery. Others who died there in addition to Afanasy: his grandmother Olga A, a widow of 75 yrs.; his aunt Agafia He, Olga's 50 yr. old daughter; his father Sergy Shuan, Olga's 47 yr. old son; his 40 yr. old mother Anna; his brothers: Pavel, 17 yrs., Evgeny, 8 yrs., and Kir, 4 yrs. (And his sister Maria, who was the bride of Fr. Mitrophan's son Isaiah, died at the Mission site; she is mentioned in part I.)

Part VII

An Albazinian, AFANASY Ah, 58-59 yrs., crippled. He studied at the Mission school since a young age and was a very frisky boy. At about 16 years of age, he fell from a city wall and from then on became a cripple: his legs were writhed and he moved with the help of his hands. Having escaped death from the Boxers, when they started to slaughter Christians near the Mission site, Afanasy hid in empty, broken down buildings of Siyefu (四爷府又称履亲王府; present Mission site). On the evening of June 11th, a Boxer having the surname Wang, threatening with a spear, drove him out to Beiguanyu, that is the-then Mission site. When the Boxers, having seized many Christians, led them beyond the Āndìngmén Gate (安定门), then Afanasy was taken also; but because he could not walk quickly, they killed him in the same place where he was seized, and they burned his body. Protasy Chan testifies to this as he was an eyewitness. He said Afanasy accepted death silently. Afanasy's wife Varvara, 45 yrs., and their children: Pelagia, 17 yrs; Maria 9 years; Savva, 6 yrs., probably died at the Mission site on June 11th.


An Albazinian, MYRON Rui, 49 yrs. His wife Maria, 43 yrs. Their children: Martha, 21 yrs.; Anastasia, 19 yrs.; Eudoxia, 16 yrs.; Innokenty, 14 yrs., Savva, 12 yrs.; Nil, 10 yrs.; Maria, 7 yrs.; Elena, 4 yrs. They accepted martyrdom in their apartment near the Mission on June 10th. However, it is known that, having been wounded by the Boxers, Myron did not die but could not move; on the morning of June 11th, at about 6, neighbors continued hitting him with bricks, then the Boxers arrived and killed him. At this time, Fr. Mitrophan's son Sergiy came to the Mission site for the last time and heard Myron's dying cries.

LYUBOV Chang, a 22 yr. old maiden. She studied at the Mission school since childhood, later taught and lived there. When the Mission buildings were burned, she hid in the house of priest Mitrophan. Having been saved from Fr. Mitrophan's house when Christians were being slaughtered (June 10), Lyubov with her brother Iosaph and another elderly widow (67 yrs.), Anna Se, hid in the house of someone named Song, who was subsequently baptized; his house was on a place called Bei-ting (near the northwest part of the wall of the present mission site). Here Lyubov and Anna, hiding in a closet, were turned over to the Boxers and then killed. It is not known where Lyubov's mother, Maria Chang, 65 yrs., died. Lyubov's 6 yr. old niece Sira, who was Joseph's daughter, burned to death in Fr. Mitrophan's house. On June 11th, Lyubov's brother Joseph Rong, 37 yrs., was again near the Mission site and, being surrounded from all directions by the approaching Boxers, ran into Fr. Mitrophan's courtyard and hanged himself on a belt. According to one soldier, the Boxers pursuing Joseph beheaded him right after he hanged himself on a tree.

DOROTHEA, wife of Tikhon Wu, 43 yrs., limped. In early childhood she studied at the Mission school. She was martyred on June 10th in Fr. Mitrophan's house. Dying together with her were: her 12 yr. old son Mina and her 63 yr. old widowed mother Anastasia Li. On the morning of June 11th, Fr. Mitrophan's son Sergiy, saw their bodies lying in a row, near Fr. Mitrophan's body, at his head.

KAPITON Ying-yuan, 43 yrs., his wife Paraskeva, 40 yrs. During the night of June 10th, when the Boxers were attacking Christians, Fr. Mitrophan's son Sergiy, saw Kapiton and Paraskeva in back of Siyefu (now a mission site). Half dressed, they quickly ran west. Sergiy warned them not to walk on a major street. They were most likely martyred at the Triangle. Kapiton had been a chorister and was engaged in copying music.

VICTOR Fu, 48 yrs., baptized as an adult. He was a servant at the Mission's school for males. His 29 yr. old wife Marina, studied at the Mission's school for females. Their children: Herman, 10 yrs.; Faith, 8 yrs.; Mathew, 3 yrs., and an adopted daughter Hope, 16 yrs. On June 11th, the Boxers, doing a house to house search for Christians, passed Victor's house, but a neighbor, You, betrayed them to the Boxers and they were martyred beyond the Āndìngmén Gate (安定门), at the Jiāodàokǒu (交道口) site. Before dying, Victor spoke to the Boxers: "Violent ruiners! Of what are we guilty?!" The Boxers assaulted him and did not spare the children. Having killed Victor, they took out his heart and offered it as a sacrifice.

PETER Wang, 51 yrs., was a humble man. On June 11th he, together with his wife Anisia (44 yrs.) and son John Song (14 yrs.) were seized by the Boxers beyond the Āndìngmén Gate, taken by cart to the Triangle and executed there. Martyred there together with them were: Aquilina, 33 yr. old wife of Peter's deceased brother, and her children: Sergiy, 13 yrs., Anania, 11 yrs., Pelagia, 5 yrs. Peter also had a 20 yr. old daughter Elena, from his first wife; she was martyred on Dōngzhímén (东直门) street.

PHILLIP Antoniev Li Ruixing, 45 yrs.; his 37 yr. old wife Anna, and 7 yr. old son Thomas lived at the Russian embassy, where Phillip was the senior servant. When the embassies were besieged, Phillip fled from the city with his family and his relatives beyond the southwest gate. But local residents, learning that they were Christians, betrayed them to be tortured. They are buried there outside the city, near the Fēngtái station (丰台区).

ALEXEY Hang Wenheng, 42 yrs., his 34 yr. old wife Thecla, their children: 14 yr. old Theoktist, 12 yr. old Anna, 7 yr. old Iulita, 5 yr. old Sofonia, 1 yr. old Nicholas. On June 11, not having the opportunity to hide from the Boxers, they – on someone's advice – poisoned themselves with opium. But when they were still alive, the Boxers arrived and manifested their barbarity by removing Alexey's heart and biting it.

THEODORE Yue, 60 yrs old, his 51 yr. old wife Elizabeth. On June 10th, when the Mission buildings were burned, Theodore and Elizabeth hid in the house of their son-in-law, Alexey Hang. It is not known whether they died in Alexey's house or elsewhere. Theodore's 18 yr. old daughter Tatiana, had married a pagan. During the Boxers rebellion, her mother-in-law caused her much suffering; she fell ill and died, but others say she was killed.

ELIAS Quan, 32 yrs., his 26 yr. old wife Elena, and their 2 yr. old son John. On June 11th, at one o'clock in the afternoon, the Boxers came to them, having been identified by neighbors. Elias had a newborn son whom the Boxers axed in half. Elias and his family died at the same time as Afanasy Yu's family. Elias' 25 yr. old brother, Gerasim, secured his life for a big sum of money, but before Beijing was taken by foreign armies, the Boxers killed Gerasim, fearing revenge on the part of Gerasim.

MINODORA Wang, 59 yrs., her 35 yr. old older son Andrew, his 29 yr. old wife Anna, their 5 yr. old daughter Sophia; Minodora's second, 33 yr. old son John, his 22 yr. old wife Daria, their 5 year old son Theodosius; 23 yr. old Maria, wife of Minodora's third son David, her 3 yr. old son Mark – they were all martyred on the evening of June 10 in the Vitta Hai home, where there is now a women's monastery. Maria was pregnant at the time.

SERGIY Filippov Zhang, 49 yr. old widower, who studied at the Mission school in early childhood; knew Russian and was a chorister all his life. He was probably martyred together with his 19 yr. old son John on June 10, at his home (where there is now a women's monastery.)

An Albazinian, ALEXANDER Heng Gui, the son of Gorodiy, 33 yr. old merchant. On June 6th he was betrayed to the Boxers by former ill-wishers, taken beyond the Dōngzhímén Gate (东直门) and killed near the city wall close to the floodgate and buried in the same place, by the river.

LEV Hai Ling, 39 yrs.; when the Boxer pogroms began, he fled to an unknown location together with his 61 yr. old father, Savva Tsin and 14 yr. old son John. The place and manner of their death are unknown.

SAMPSON Nikolaev Pan, 36 yrs., his 32 year old wife Anna, their 7 yr. old son Evdokim; at first he purchased his life for money, but the Boxers were dissatisfied with the sum he gave. When on June 15th Sampson was returning after getting his tsi-zhen salary, the Boxers severed his head at a place calledJiāodàokǒu (交道口) , stuck it atop a club, carried it on a big street, proclaiming: "This is Sampson's head". Samson's wife and son were probably killed at the Triangle.

An Albazinian, PAUL Sang, 60 yrs., the brother of Monk Papiy. June 1, when the Boxer pogroms began, left on his cart, some say it was for Shānxīprovince (山西省); it is unknown where he died.

DANIEL De, 30 yrs. When the Boxers started attacking Christians, Daniel at first hid, but was then seized and killed on the Dōngzhímén street. His father Trofim Gong (53 yrs) and mother Ekaterina (52 yrs.) probably died in their house (near the Mission).

GEORGE Lian Xi, 42 yrs. On June 10th he saved himself from the Boxers who were attacking Christians, but on the next day was seized and killed near Dongsipailou in Cheng'ensi.

ANNA Lin, 81 yr. old widow, from among the wards of the Mission. After the destruction of the Mission building, she first lived at Pavel Wang's. And when Pavel's house was ravaged, Anna walked to Beijing's western parts, intending to hide with relatives, but she did not find shelter there and, on the return trip, was drowned in a small river by the inhabitants of a Manchurian military settlement. This happened, probably, on June 4th.

MATRONA Lian, 46 yrs. When the mission buildings were destroyed, Matrona with her younger daughter Mavra (10 yrs.) was evicted from her apartment by the pagan landlord and hid in Fr. Mitrophan's house where her husband, Mina Lian, was also staying. On June 10th, when the Boxers were attacking Christians in Fr. Mitrophan's house, Matrona died there as well, along with her daughter Mavra. Matrona's older daughter – her name is forgotten – had married a pagan, and when the Boxer uprising began, her husband's relatives starved her to death since the Boxers terrified them, as if they saw white steam above those houses where Christians were hiding, and threatened the occupants of such houses with extermination without recourse.

EVFIMY Pan, 42 yrs. When the Boxer pogroms began, he hid on Mǎsháo Hútòng Lane (马杓胡同, south of the Mission), but on June 11 villains stoned him there on the street. Evfimy's 36 yr. old wife Fevronia was probably burned in the house.

AKILINA Shuang, 25 yrs., her 61 yr. old widowed mother-in-law Anna Chang, her 39 yr. old husband Paul Konstantinov Shuang, and children: 10 yr. old Ioann, 4 yr. old Makrina, 2 yr. old Ioann – hid on Mǎsháo Hútòng Lane. Villainous neighbors advised them to lock themselves in the house, promising to conceal them from the Boxers. Not suspecting treachery, they locked themselves in the house. When the Boxers arrived, the house was set on fire, beginning with the windows and doors, so that all those inside perished from the fire.

IRINA Gui Ruishi, 54 yrs. At the beginning of the Boxer pogrom, she and her 61 yr. old husband Ionah Gui, hid in Miron Rui's house (near the site where there is now a women's monastery). Irina was a woman of modest outlook, who attended church daily. It is said that when she was pointed out as a "èrmáozǐ" (二毛子) to Boxers searching for Christians, she, in simplicity of heart, answered: "We are not 'èrmáozǐ' but Christians."

An Albazinian, IRINA Fu, 35 yrs., wife of Ivan Fu. Irina's children: Anna, 17; Athanasia, 10; Evpraksiya, 8; Prokhor, 6; Natria, 3. On June 10 Elena's husband took her and the children to her mother, Anna Rui, promising to look for a place for them to hide. But in the evening attacks on Christians began; Irina, with the help of her sister (now the nun Fiva [Phoebe]), sought safety, fleeing with her children from her mother's house over a wall. However, being pregnant, she could hardly move. In the morning, the Boxers seized her onNánxiǎo Jiē Street (南小街) near Lumicang. Later she was sent through theĀndìngmén Gate to the Boxer encampment and killed with her children at the Triangle. Irina's daughter-in-law Pelagia, 44, died together with her. Pelagia's husband, Stefan Fu, hid from the Boxers for about three months beyond the Qiánmén Gate (正阳门,俗称前门 ). He died from an illness when foreign armies took Beijing.

ANNA Bai, widow, 62 yrs. She lived in the Mission alms house with her son, Antoni, 16. When the mission buildings were burned, Anna hid in Shizijie, that is, with Christians living at the site which now is a part of the Mission courtyard, near the women's monastery; she probably died beyond the Āndìngmén Gate.

ZOYA Shuang, about 45 yrs., widow. She, together with her daughter Alexandra, 11, and her son Andrei, 7, lived at the Mission alms house. After the Mission buildings burned, Zoya with her children, hid with relatives on Shizijie Street and probably died beyond the Āndìngmén Gate.

An Albazinian, KAPITOLINA Huai, widow, 62. After her husband's death, being in great poverty and forced by her son-in-law, she renounced the faith. Then her legs were taken away. Shortly before the Boxer rebellion, Kapitolina repented and she probably died beyond the Āndìngmén Gate.

An Albazinian, AGAFIYA Rui, widow, 55 yrs. She lived in the Mission almshouse. After the Mission buildings had been burned, Agafiya hid on Dongchenggen Street (eastern part of the present site of the women's monastery; she died, probably, in Miron Rui's house.

An Albazinian, KAPITOLINA Huai, widow, 62. After her husband's death, being in great poverty and forced by her son-in-law, she renounced the faith. Then her legs were taken away. Shortly before the Boxer rebellion, Kapitolina repented and she probably died beyond the Āndìngmén Gate.

An Albazinian, AGAFIYA Rui, widow, 55 yrs. She lived in the Mission almshouse. After the Mission buildings had been burned, Agafiya hid on Dongchenggen Street (eastern part of the present site of the women's monastery; she died, probably, in Miron Rui's house.

AKILINA Guang, widow, 47 yrs. She lived at the Mission alms house. Her children: Evstolia, 14, and Kifa, 11. They died, probably, when the Christians were attacked, on June 10, not known where.

EVGENI Vasilevich Ji, 47, Manchurian soldier, endured martyrdom on June 7th near Dōngzhímén Gate, at a place called Hónglǐng (红领), and there was thrown down a well.

EVFIMIA, 12 yrs., daughter of the Albazinian, Paul Yong, endured martyrdom on June 10, in Fr. Mitrophan's house.

An Albazinian, FEODOT Gordiev Rui, 60 yrs., endured martyrdom in his house near the Mission, on June 10th.

The son of Luke Quan, MIKHAIL, with his wife and three children fled to their cemetery, but not finding a haven, went from place to place and were seized. This was on June 8 at about 12 o'clock. They were taken to the Boxer encampment beyond Āndìngmén Gate. Ivan Zhun, taken in the morning, was already there. At about 3, Alexander Chen was seized in his house and brought to the encampment beyond Āndìngmén Gate. Protectors were found for him as well as Ivan and Mikail; ransom was paid, and they were confined in the Boxer encampment. Later Alexander and Ivan's families were transferred there. They lived there for more than a month in crowded surroundings. But not all the children were able to bear the horrors of that time. The day after capture, Alexander's daughter Maria, 3, died in an attack of illness; then, one by one Ivan's children died: Maria, 5; Nina, 8; Vasily, 3; finally Mikhail's daughter Elena, 6, died. Simeon – Ivan's brother – was also there and he was also dying.

ELENA Huo, widow, 73 yrs; Olimpiada Jin, widow 61; Olimpiada's daughter Olga, 19, all endured martyrdom on June 10 near the Mission.

FEVRONIA Fu, 72 yrs, endured martyrdom June 1, beyond the ĀndìngménGate.

ANNA Li, widow, 58 yrs.

NIKON Huo, 23 yrs.

ANDREI Zhu Ling, 54 yrs, suffered on June 10 at the Mission site.

PETR Chang, 57 yrs, endured martyrdom on June 11.

IONA, adopted son of Alexei Hang Wenheng, 19 yrs.

DARIA De, 54 yr. old widow, mother of Gerasim Fu and Gerasim's daughter Agafia, endured martyrdom, on June 11 at Shíchàhǎi (什刹海), beyond the Hòumén Gate (后门).

An Albazinian, PAVEL Nikolaevich Dong, 48; his wife Evgenia Mihailovna, 38, and their children: Iuliania, 13; Lukia, 9; Stefan, 7, endured martyrdom on June 20 in Zhuāngqīn Wángfǔ (庄亲王府) in the western city.

DARIA, 33 yr. old sister of Nikolai Ji, endured martyrdom on June 23rd beyond the Dōngchímén Gate.

ISAIAH Se, 62 yr. old Manchurian, died June 22nd beyond the Dōngzhímén Gate.

ANNA, 56 yr. old wife of the Albazinian, Georgy A, and Anna, Georgy's 36 yr. old daughter, both Albazinians, endured martyrdom on Hǎidàimén, near Shiyiyuan.

An Albazinian, NIKOLAI, 22 yr. old nephew of Nikon Quan.

Part IX

Christians slaughtered in the village of Dōngdìngān (东定安)

ALEXEI Zhang, 48 yrs. He, like his father Daniel, in whose time theDōngdìngān church was constructed, lived at the church as a caretaker. When the Boxer unrests began during the 5th month, he found courage and did not hasten to hide. When the church was burnt on the 11th of the 6th month, Alexei with all his family went to Beijing. His family consisted of: his wife Evfimia, 44 and his children: Evdokia, 11; Nikita, 10, Michael, 6; Maria, 1. Having arrived in Beijing and having seen the ashes of the destroyed Mission, Alexei departed for the northern mountains; but local inhabitants did not accept him, and only one family sheltered his elder daughter as their son's future bride. Alexei and the rest of his family returned to Dōngdìngān , where he was soon seized by the Boxers and together with his two boys was killed at a place called Sānjiǎo Kēng (三角坑, Triangular Pit), near a road to the west of the Mission site. Alexei's wife and younger daughter were martyred in a field on the northern side of the village of Maozhuang.

STEFAN Wang Yuguang, 61. After the Boxers burned the church, Stefan hid for two weeks in the fields, was later turned in by malicious people and died together with Alexei.

KIR Zhin Fucheng, 60. Kir's house was burned at the same time as the church. Then Kir and his family hid in the village of Maozhuang. When the Boxer's found Kir there, his sons were with him. The older one, Basil, escaped through a wall, but the younger one, John, was sick with fever and was killed by the Boxers together with his father. Kir's wife Paraskeva, with her grandson Herman, John's son, was in the field and escaped death. Basil's wife with three children – she herself and the children – all unbaptized – fled to Báizhuāng (白庄) after the church was burned and hid in a bog, and the next day was killed there. She with the children can be considered as having been baptized by fire. Later her body and the bodies of her children were removed from the bog and buried by relatives.

IRINA, 55, was Paul Zhang Yu's stepmother. In that year of the Boxer rebellion, Irina had just been baptized in the 4th month. At that time, the Boxer unrests had already begun and many rebuked Irina for being baptized. Later she was killed by the Boxers near the village of Dōngdìngān.

English translation by Nina Tkachuk Dimas, 2004.



Troparion to the 222 Martyrs of the Yihetuan Uprising in China, Tone 4

Thy two hundred and twenty two martyrs, O Lord, / who shone forth in the empire of China / held the Christian faith as a shield / and did not bow down to idols. / They accepted torture and death from their irrational countrymen / and through the lips of the passion-bearing youth they cried cried: // we disregard the tortures and wish to acquire eternal life with this transitory one.

Kontakion, tone 2.

As a valuable treasure for three years preserved in the earth, / your relics have appeared, O hieromartyr Mitrophanes and thy rational sheep; / they have shone forth in the city of Beijing, / granting our souls an inexhaustible grace. / Therefore we cry with joy and love: // through the prayers of the passion-bearers, Christ our God, have mercy on us.